Colegiata De San Isidro

Take out some headphones! It’s time to enjoy the Four Seasons of Vivaldi, but a little bit more…I don’t now… we could say more rock!




Historical Context

The building, designed by Pedro Sánchez, was ordered to be constructed in the year 1622 by María de Austria.It is located on the street of Toledo, 37, 28005 in Madrid.This building was the provisional cathedral in Madrid until the cathedral of La Almudena.

In 1130, San Isidro died ,and they built this church in his honor, and the ashes were placed  in the altar.


It has three big doors and the biggest one is in the middle with the imperial shield of Maria de Austria. This colegiata has two statues: one of San Isidro and the other of his wife, Santa Maria de la Cabeza. The statues show movement, but they don’t have any facial expression. The building has a Latin cross plan, with a single aisle down the middle and chapels on both sides. Above the intersection of the cross, there is a large dome. The architectural style is Baroque, typical for the time period before the Renaissance in the 17th and 18th centuries.


The facade is made up of granite, and the inferior part is made up of limestone.

The  limestone is a sedimentary rock with a hardness of 3-4 on the mohs scale.

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of the remains of the rocks and crystals. These build up and create layers, called sediments. The layer at the bottom is under a lot of pressure. That pressure squeezes out the water from the rocks. This process is called compaction.

The crystals start to create a type of glue or cement, so the sediments join together creating sedimentary rocks. This process is called cementation. Different agents affect the surface of the pre-existing rock (which can be igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic). This produces new layers that become part of a new sedimentary rock. The agents involved are rain, frost, wind, temperature, river, sea, etc.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock with a hardness of 3-4 on the mohs scale, but that can be diluted by the passing of time.


Granite is a plutonic igneous rock with a hardness of 6-7 in the mohs scale and are formed of solidified molten magma. 

Why these rocks?

They used granite because it has a lot of endurance to erosion, it has a lot of resistance and because there was a lot of granite in Madrid.

They used limestone because  it is easy to recognize thanks to the fundamental physical and chemical characteristics of calcite: it is less hard than copper (its hardness on the Mohs scale is 3).

They used granite because it have a lot of endurance to erosion and was y resistance.

Normal state



Where these rocks came from:

This rocks came from  the quarries of Becerril de la Sierra, Galapagar, Collado Villalba, Alpedrete, Torrelodones and Cerceda.  They were transported by cart. The hardness of limestone on the Mohs scale is 3, and reacts with effervescence in the presence of acids such as hydrochloric acid.



There are very few alterations in the granite of the buildings. These alterations are due to living microorganisms, pollution (carbon dioxide), and meteorological phenomena such as rain, wind … etc. They cause the rock to become darker and to turn red.

Also, it is practically impermeable and has great resistance against the passing of time.


Limestone reacts to effervescence in the presence of acids such as hydrochloric acid .

It can be diluted by the effects of water over the course of time.  

This causes the rock to dissolve in the water making the rock smaller.

Second 360 IMAGE


By: Sergio Rupérez Gil, Sergio Cabezas García, Alejandra González Sánchez, Eric Schmitt García