Pachelbel´s Canon in D Major
-Rock Metal Edition-
In this period, many kings ruled over Spain.
Philip III: 1598/1621. He was king of Spain and Portugal. He was champion of the Roman Catholic Counter Reformation, as well as during his reign Spain attained its greatest power but even though he failed at the attempted invasion of England in 1588.
Philip IV: 1621/1665. He also was king of Spain and Portugal.His father was Philip the III,he had a valido (Conde-Duque of Olivares). He tried to restore the Spanish hegemony in Europe and during his reign we won some conspicuous victories like the capture of Breda from the Dutch (1626).
Charles II: 1665/1700. He was king of Spain, Naples and Sicily.He was king of Spain, Naples and Sicily. He was son of Philip the IV and the last Habsburg of Spain. During his reign Spain was in a bad economic situation and there was hunger as well monarchy power over provinces was really weak.
The 17th century in Spain was called the Golden Age (Siglo de Oro). Madrid started growing really fast. Many great artists like Cervantes, Lope de Vega and Velázquez came to Madrid.
The economy in the 17th century almost turned to capitalism, but Madrid wasn´t very good at trade because it was not next to the ocean or a river.
The original church was built in the 14th century (1345- 1355), but one of the most important reformations of the Church was made in the first half of the 17th century.
This Church was built above a mosque called; Mezquita de la Morería, this church has suffered many transformations through its history. It remains a tower called; torre mudéjar(1345 – 1355), la capilla de los Lujanes and la portada renacentista.
The artistic style of this building is baroque, but, as it was built above a mosque, it has also mozarab architecture (the mudejar tower).
The rest of the building was rebuilt by Francisco Sanz at the half of the XVII century.
It keeps one of the most devoted religious images from the spanish catholics: la talla de Jesús el Pobre.
From this century we just keep la capilla gótica de los Lujanes y la torre mudéjar in the XVII century,Lorenzo Reinoso, made a rebuilt of the temple,Francisco Sanz Cortés was the architect, the finished in 1661. During the Independence War, the temple was destroyed by french people but it was rebuilt THanks to the bishops from Toledo and donations from the cofradies . In 1886, San Pedro el Real almost destroyed the temple but it didn’t happen.
It is called San Pedro el Viejo because it is really old.
During the civil war it had many damages and his interior as well, we lost all the pieces of art it keeped.
Main architectural and decorative elements:
The shape of the floor plan is similar to a Latin cross plan, but it is not totally sure because the Church was renovated many times.
The columns in the façade seem to be Tuscan, and the arches appear to be from the baroque. As it also has architectural elements from other periods, this monument doesn´t have pilasters in the façade.
The inside of the parish has baroque style, but it does not have all the characteristics. Most baroque buildings interiors are full of decorations, but this Church interior has a lack of decorative elements.
Who commissioned its construction?
The construction of this church was thanks to Alfonso XI, because he was really mad at the infidels(mozarabs) who won the christians at a war, it happened at the San Pedro’s day and he ordered to built a Christian temple where there was a mosque at the past.
Original and current function:
This Church is used for comunions, weddings, baptisms, masses, and tourism.
State of conservation and restorations carried out:
It is one of the oldest churches from Madrid, his tower is the only part which is original from the XIV century. The façade is damaged, we can see that the bricks are deteriorated due to the years.
It has gone through many restorations due to battles between muslims and christians,
XV and XVI century; amplification of the church.
XVII century ; huge transformation at the inside.
XVIII century; transformation at the bells and reformations at the roof.
XIX century; there is not money so the church is quite bad, they tried to break the church in 1863, in 1891 they change its location and in 1899 the church is a ruin.
XX century; between 1946 and 1969 a part from the church is taken off. In 1965 the Foundation se are restored, and they continued restoring the church.
XVII century; the church situation is not really good because it has many humidity so the façade can break off easily, there are stains, dirt, fissures,gutters are full and covers and cornices are in poor conditions.
Types of rocks in the building:
The building is made up of granite, which is an igneous rock.It is also made up of cement, used to join the mozarab bricks of the building, which is a sedimentary rock (explained below).
Granite is formed between the crust of the Earth when magma ccols down without reaching the surface. As it stays under the surface while it is cooling it forms large crystals.It has; 20% Quartz with up to 65% of the rock being Feldspar.
Granites normally forms in areas where water crust gets into the Asthenosphere and melts. The melt rises to the crust, the melt stops moving when the internal pressure is equal to the surrounding pressure but as gases escape quicker than the molten rock, the melt loses volatiles. Normally the melt stays below ground and cools slowly until it creates granite.
Cementation,cement forms an integral and important part of the rock, and its precipitation affects the rock.
Many minerals may become cements; the most common is silica (generally quartz), but calcite and other carbonates also can transform into cement
It is unclear just how and when the cement is deposited. Part seems to originate within the formation, and part seems to from outside by water.
Features of the rocks:
Granite: It has grains in it, it forms the crystallization of magma, it’s made of quartz. The colors can be red, grey, or pink.
Bricks: They are mozarab bricks. They were used a lot in the mudejar art. The bricks are formed with clay, which is a sedimentary rock.
Justification of the type of rock chosen:
Because granite supports erosion, and because in Madrid there is a high quantity of granite. As well, granite is very resistant through time. It also gives an elegant touch to the Church .They used cement, in order to separate the bricks used to build the Church.
Quarries used for rocks extraction (and way of transport of them):
The granite is extracted from the Sierra de Madrid, Albacete and Galapagar, to name a few.
Then, the materials are transported and are used to build this and many other buildings in Madrid de los Austrias.
Granite is transported in large blocks, those blocks are cut and reduced to sizes which can be handled easier. Then granite is put into containers and they are transported around the world. When the granite reaches its destination, granite worktop companies further will cut and polish the granite.
Mining and polishing granite:
Exposes granite deposit and takes their reserves.Granite is usually drilled then hammered to separate blocks which are lifted to the surface of the mine and it’s transported to a processing plant.
Starts with a rough coarse diamond polishing when individual cutouts are made the process is done again by hand until it is finished.
Alterations that the materials have suffered:
Due to the years and poor care applied on the church during this periods of time
the church nowadays can break off easily, there are stains, dirt, fissures,gutters are full and covers and cornices are in poor conditions.
The mozarab bricks due to these reasons are really bad and worn.
Granite have stains due to the humidity of the building and fissures due to the years.
San Pedro el Viejo
By; Sofía Izquierdo, Silvia Gómez, Carlota Damborenea and Jesús Alcocer.